Fissure eruptions

status: ONGOING

Situated the north of the Bárdarbunga,Vatnajökull glacier
Coordinates : 64°51′N 16°50′W


Bárðarbunga Volcano, September 4 2014 - 15145866372.jpg
Bárðarbunga Volcano, September 4 2014 – 15145866372” by peterhartree – http://www.flickr.com/photos/41812768@N07/15145866372/. Licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons.


Area next to the eruption are closed for public acces

Gas pollution from the eruption are thoroughly monitored



It seems to be the larges eruption in Iceland sins 1947

The Ashes had was 20 km high at the begging but to day +10 km

It provoke closer to Keflavik airport but sins this ash is heavier the in Eyjafjallajökull and weather condition are different the ash has not provoke disruption elsewhere.

Dark Ash Mist are all over the south-Iceland end some Ashes are found in Reykjavik.

- Icelandic news-flash, taken in the Ash mist (in the middle of day) [ photos ]

Lightning during the Grímsvötn volcanic eruption [ photos ]

-Volcanic Ash Advisory –  graphics





Grímsvötn, Vatnajökull

started about 19:00

It seem to be large eruption the last one in 2004 but not as affective the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in 2010


In the press:






The Next Eruption in Iceland

Eruption are hard to predict, history can tell us something but than again volcano’s have the tendency to change there historical schedule.

Will it be:

Eyjafallajökull ?
Is this only a pause will it erupt again

Hekla ?
Eruption approximately every 10 years – last eruption 2000 !

Katla ?
Eruption approximately every 60-80 years – last eruption 1918 !

Grímsvötn (Vatnajökull) ?
Last eruptions 1998 and 2004.
Harmonic tremor was recorded twice around Grímsvötn on 2 and 3 October 2010, potentially indicating an impending eruption. At the same time,  sudden inflation was measured by GPS in the volcano, indicating magma movement under the mountain. On 1 November 2010 meltwater from the Vatnajökull glacier was flowing into the lake, suggesting that an eruption of the underlying volcano might be imminent.

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Glacier and Stratovolcano
Height:  1.651 metres
Area:  100 m2
6th larges glacier in Iceland

Situated in the South of Iceland
Coordinates : 63°38′N 19°36′W

The eruption starts about 7:00 am 14.april 2010

It was the continuing of the earlier eruption in Fimmvörðuháls but now it is a volcanic subglacial eruption and about twenty times larger.

The eruption where mostly ended at 23.may after 39 days although the area is still geothermally active and might erupt again.


Air travel disruption
Ash in the atmosphere led to air travel disruption in northwest Europe for six days from 15 April and in May 2010, airspace over many parts of Europe where closed down.

800 people living near by the volcano where requiring to be evacuated for safety reasons, when the eruption where causing meltwater floods (A jökulhlaup or glacier burst) to rush down the nearby rivers.  The jökulhlaup didn’t so ever cause any real harm except for miner damage on  roads and bridges.

Ash Mist
Farmer and Agriculture living in south of the volcano where heavily disrupted by Ash fall during the eruption and Ash Mist long after the eruption ended. Lighter Ash Mist covered all South Iceland and sometimes in Reykjavik. People where still dealing with some Ash Mist 6 month after the eruption.


Height before the eruption:  985 meters

Height after the eruption
The crater Magni:  1067 meters

The crater Móði:  1032 meters

Situated in the South of Iceland
between the glaciers Eyjafjallajökull and Mýrdalsjökull
Coordinates : 63°38.251′ N 19°26.467′


The eruption in Fimmvörðuháls are sometimes called
“The Small Cosy Tourist Eruption”

After a the authority where sure that the eruption are situated in the mountain pass between the two glacier Eyjafjalljökull and
Mýdalsjökull but not under them, and it is relatively small eruption the volcano-tourist-flow starts in a heavy stream.

Icelander and people coming from all over the world, where flying around in helicopters and airplanes, Montaigne Jeep driving in hundreds over the glacier of Mýrdalsjökull, and hiker walking in extreme cold to see the spectacular fire and lave coming up on the surface from deep down under the earth. The Eruption in Fimmvörðuháls even became an subject in British motorcar TV-show.

200 metres high lava fall
The eruption starts with that fissure opened up about 150 meters in length ejecting lava at a temperature of about 1,000 °C up to 150 meters  into the air. The molten lava has flowed into the canyon Hrunagil, forming a 200 metres high lava fall.

31 March, a new fissure opened on around 200 metres from the original fissure. Many witnesses were present while the new fissure opened around 300 metres long and lava coming from it started to flow into the canyon Hvannárgil.

Magni and Móði
The eruption ended in 13.april during this 25 days people witnessed, for the first time in history, the formation of a pseudocrater during a steam explosion and the highest lava fall in the world. Two crater where formed and have been named Magni and Móði and are the 82 and 47 meters height from original landscape.
The day after, 14. April the big Eyjafjallajökull eruption start with ejecting ashes into the air and disrupting air travel in Europe.
This two eruption where related and can be considered the same eruption only the Fimmvörðuháls eruption where the foreplay of what was coming.


Large tourist attraction.

Evacuations and air travel disruption
For safty reasons people living near by the volcano where requiring to be evacuated and the international airport in Keflavik and the airport in Reykjavik where closed at first until it was clear the eruption was small and harmless.


Volcanic caldera
Height : 1725 meters

Lakes covered by its ice cap and beneath them is the magma chamber of a volcano.
Situated the northwestern side of the Vatnajökull glacier
Coordinates : 64°25′12″N 17°19′48″W


This was a short subglacial eruption that ended  7. November only 7.days later.
Eruption in Vatnajökull are likely to provoke some glacier burst (A jökulhlaup or meltwater floods) but didn’t at this time.



No glacial burst followed the eruption.

Grímsvötn is not easily accessible so this eruption didn’t cause any tourist rush to the volcano.

Air Traffic
Volcanic ash from the eruption fell as far away as mainland Europe and caused short-term disruption of airline traffic into Iceland.


Fissure stratovolcano
Height :  1488  meters

Situated in the South of Iceland
Coordinates : 63°59′N 19°42′W


The eruption started at 18:18 and scientific where able to predict the eruption 15 minutes before and that is unique in Icelandic volcano history.
At the first night the fissure had opened to 6-7 km length, activity was at a maximum in the first hour followed be those phases:
  1. initial explosive stage
  2. fire fountains
  3. bursts of Strombolian eruption
  4. effusion of lava
The steam column rose to a height of almost 15 km and ash was transported
295km north to Grímsey.

The eruption ended in 8. March after 9 days of eruption
and it is one of the shortest eruption in Hekla.


But unfortunately the beginning of the eruption was during a heavy winter storm that cause lot of problem to curious spectators who always rush to the volcano to try to witness the eruption.

20th century

Surtsey 1963
Creation of Surtsey 1963

1998 Grímsvötn – subglacial eruptions, Vatnajökull
1996 Gjálp – subglacial eruptions, Vatnajökull
1991 Hekla
1984 Krafla
1983 Grímsvötn
1981 Krafla 2 eruptions
1981 Hekla
1980 Hekla
1980 Krafla 3 eruptions
1977 Krafla 2 eruptions
1975 Krafla
1973  –  Underwater eruption about 5 km from south coast
1973 Heimaey – Vestmannaeyjar (Westman Islands)
1970 Hekla
1963-1967 Surtsey - Underwater eruption that created the island Surtsey
1961 Askja
1947 Hekla
1938 Grímsvötn – subglacial eruption, Vatnajökull
1934 Grímsvötn – subglacial eruption, Vatnajökull
1933 Grímsvötn – subglacial eruption, Vatnajökull
1929 Askja
1927 Askja
1926 – Underwater eruption Northeast of the island Eldey
1924 Askja
1923 Askja
1922 Askja 2 eruptions.
1922 Grímsvötn – subglacial eruption, Vatnajökull
1921 Askja
1918 Katla – subglacial eruption,  Mýrdalsjökull
1913 Hekla
1910 Þórðarhyrna – subglacial eruption, Vatnajökull
1903 Þórðarhyrna – subglacial eruption, Vatnajökull
1902 Grímsvötn – subglacial eruption, Vatnajökull